Tuesday, November 25, 2008
Blog 2 - blue white blog
Blog 3 - 3 col green blog
Blog 4 - black blog
Blog 5 - plain blog
Blog 6 - I dun like the color of the blog punya blog
Ok. Dude.. Just Ctrl V and Ctrl F to get ur answer : )
good luck ^^
Sunday, November 23, 2008
For those who intended to get 100% in test, PLEASE refer the 3 site above and made a comparison, then only you will get totally 100%, juz like me :)
more site will be added ^^
Tuesday, October 21, 2008
Wednesday, October 15, 2008
other site : http://ccna4exploration.blogspot.com
Options With Highlight Colours are Correct Answer
1. Refer to the exhibit. Which network prefix will work with the IP addressing scheme shown in the graphic.
2. Which IPv4 subnetted addresses represent valid host addresses? (Choose three.)
• 172.16.4.127 /26
• 172.16.4.155 /26
• 172.16.4.193 /26
• 172.16.4.95 /27
• 172.16.4.159 /27
• 172.16.4.207 /27
3. Which statements are true regarding IP addressing? (Choose two.)
• NAT translates public addresses to private addresses destined for the Internet.
Only one company is allowed to use a specific private network address space.
• Private addresses are blocked from public Internet by router.
• Network 220.127.116.11 is part of the private address space.
• IP address 127.0.0.1 can be used for a host to direct traffic to itself.
4. Which process do routers use to determine the subnet network address based • upon a given IP address and subnet mask?
• binary adding
• hexadecimal anding
• binary division
• binary multiplication
• binary ANDing
• The host subnet mask is incorrect.
• The default gateway is a network address.
• The default gateway is a broadcast address.
• The default gateway is on a different subnet from the host.
6. What subnet mask would a network administrator assign to a network address of 172.30.1.0 if it were possible to have up to 254 hosts?
7. Which three IP addresses are private? (Choose three.)
• This is a useable host address.
• This is a broadcast address.
• This is a network address.
• This is not a valid address.
10. Refer to the exhibit. The network administrator has assigned the internetwork of LBMISS an address range of 192.168.10.0. This address range has been subnetted using a /29 mask. In order to accommodate a new building, the technician has decided to use the fifth subnet for configuring the new network (subnet zero is the first subnet). By company policies, the router interface is always assigned the first usable host address and the workgroup server is given the last usable host address. Which configuration should be entered into the workgroup server's properties to allow connectivity to the network?
• IP address: 192.168.10.38 subnet mask: 255.255.255.240 default gateway: 192.168.10.39
• IP address: 192.168.10.38 subnet mask: 255.255.255.240 default gateway: 192.168.10.33
• IP address: 192.168.10.38 subnet mask: 255.255.255.248 default gateway: 192.168.10.33
• IP address: 192.168.10.39 subnet mask: 255.255.255.248 default gateway: 192.168.10.31
• IP address: 192.168.10.254 subnet mask: 255.255.255.0 default gateway: 192.168.10.1
11. Which of the following network devices are recommended to be assigned static IP addresses? (Choose three.)
• LAN workstations
• network printers
• remote workstations
12. hich of the following are features of IPv6? (Choose three.)
• larger address space
• faster routing protocols
• data types and classes of service
• authentication and encryption
• improved host naming conventions
• same addressing scheme as IPv4
13. What is the primary reason for development of IPv6?
• header format simplification
• expanded addressing capabilities
• addressing simplification
14. What two things will happen if a router receives an ICMP packet which has a TTL value of 1 and the destination host is several hops away? (Choose two.)
• The router will discard the packet.
• The router will decrement the TTL value and forward the packet to the next router on the path to the destination host.
• The router will send a time exceeded message to the source host.
• The router will increment the TTL value and forward the packet to the next router on the path to the destination host.
• The router will send an ICMP Redirect Message to the source host.
15. Refer to the exhibit. Why would the response shown be displayed after issuing the command ping 127.0.0.1 on a PC?
• The IP settings are not properly configured on the host.
• Internet Protocol is not properly installed on the host.
• There is a problem at the physical or data link layer.
• The default gateway device is not operating.
• A router on the path to the destination host has gone down.
16. How many bits make up an IPv4 address?
17. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator discovers that host A is having trouble with Internet connectivity, but the server farm has full connectivity. In addition, host A has full connectivity to the server farm. What is a possible cause of this problem?
• The router has an incorrect gateway.
• Host A has an overlapping network address.
• Host A has an incorrect default gateway configured.
• Host A has an incorrect subnet mask.
• NAT is required for the host A network.
18. What three facts are true about the network portion of an IPv4 address? (Choose three.)
• identifies an individual device
• is identical for all hosts in a broadcast domain
• is altered as packet is forwarded
• varies in length
• is used to forward packets
• uses flat addressing
19. What is a group of hosts called that have identical bit patterns in the high order bits of their addresses?
• an internet
• a network
• an octet
• a radix
• Bottom of Form
• Top of Form
• Bottom of Form
20. What is the network address of the host 172.25.67.99 /23 in binary?
• 10101100. 00011001.01000011.00000000
• 10101100. 00011001.01000011.11111111
• 10101100. 00011001.01000010.00000000
• 10101100. 00011001.01000010.01100011
• 10101100. 00010001.01000011. 01100010
• 10101100. 00011001.00000000.00000000
21. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator has to develop an IP addressing scheme that uses the 192.168.1.0 /24 address space. The network that contains the serial link has already been addressed out of a separate range. Each network will be allocated the same number of host addresses. Which network mask will be appropriate to address the remaining networks?
Friday, October 10, 2008
• This is a UDP header.
• This contains a Telnet request.
• This contains a TFTP data transfer.
• The return packet from this remote host will have an Acknowledgement Number of 43693.
• This is a TCP header.
2. With TCP/IP data encapsulation, which range of port numbers identifies all well-known applications?
• 0 to 255
• 256 to 1022
• 0 to 1023
• 1024 to 2047
• 49153 to 65535
3. Why are port numbers included in the TCP header of a segment?
• to indicate the correct router interface that should be used to forward a segment
• to identify which switch ports should receive or forward the segment
• to determine which Layer 3 protocol should be used to encapsulate the data
• to enable a receiving host to forward the data to the appropriate application
• to allow the receiving host to assemble the packet in the proper order
4. Which OSI model layer is responsible for regulating the flow of information from source to destination, reliably and accurately?
5. Refer to the exhibit. Host A is using FTP to download a large file from Server 1. During the download process, Server 1 does not receive an acknowledgment from Host A for several bytes of transferred data. What action will Server 1 take as a result?
• create a Layer 1 jam signal
• reach a timeout and resend the data that needs to be acknowledged
• send a RESET bit to the host
• change the window size in the Layer 4 header
6. Why is flow control used for TCP data transfer?
• to synchronize equipment speed for sent data
• to synchronize and order sequence numbers so data is sent in complete numerical order
• to prevent the receiver from being overwhelmed by incoming data
• to synchronize window size on the server
• to simplify data transfer to multiple hosts
7. Which two options represent Layer 4 addressing? (Choose two.)
• identifies the destination network
• identifies source and destination hosts
• identifies the communicating applications
• identifies multiple conversations between the hosts
• identifies the devices communicating over the local media
8. Refer to the exhibit. In line 7 of this Wireshark capture, what TCP operation is being performed?
• session establishment
• segment retransmit
• data transfer
• session disconnect
• Bottom of Form
9. Refer to the exhibit. What two pieces of information can be determined from the output that is shown? (Choose two.)
• The local host is using well-known port numbers to identify the source ports.
• The local host web session with a remote server
• There client session
• The local computer is accepting HTTP requests.
• 192.168.1.101:1042 is performing the three-way handshake with 18.104.22.168:80.
10. What is dynamically selected by the source host when forwarding data?
• destination logical address
• source physical address
• default gateway address
• source port
11. What are two features of the Us
er Datagram Protocol (UDP)? (Choose two.)
• flow control
• low overhead
• sequence and acknowledgements
12. What mechanism is used by TCP to provide flow control as segments travel from source to destination?
• sequence numbers
• session establishment
• window size
13. Which transport layer protocol provides low overhead and would be used for applications which do not require reliable data delivery?
14. Which information is found in both the TCP and UDP header information?
• flow control
• source and destination
15. Which three features allow TCP to reliably and accurately track the transmission of data from source to destination?
• flow control
• connectionless services
• session establishment
• numbering and sequencing
• best effort delivery
16. During a TCP communication session, if the packets arrive to the destination out of order, what will happen to the original message?
• The packets will not be delivered.
• The packets will be retransmitted from the source.
• The packets will be delivered and reassembled at the destination.
• The packets will be delivered and not reassembled at the destination.
17. Which is an important characteristic of UDP?
• acknowledgement of data delivery
• minimal delays in data delivery
• high reliability of data delivery
• same order data delivery
18. After a web browser makes a request to a web server that is listening to the standard port, what will be the source port number in the TCP header of the response from the server?
19. Which event occurs during the transport layer three-way handshake?
• The two applications exchange data.
• TCP initializes the sequence numbers for the sessions.
• UDP establishes the maximum number of bytes to be sent.
• The server acknowledges the bytes of data received from the client.
refer site :http://ccna-cisco-academy.blogspot.com/2008/10/ccna1-module-4-exam-answers-v4.html
1. In an IPv4 environment, what information is used by the router to forward data packets from one interface of a router to another?
• destination network address
• source network address
• source MAC address
• well known port destination address
2. What information is added during encapsulation at OSI Layer 3?
• source and destination MAC
• source and destination application protocol
• source and destination port number
• source and destination IP address
3. In a connectionless system, which of the following is correct?
• The destination is contacted before a packet is sent.
• The destination is not contacted before a packet is sent.
• The destination sends an acknowledgement to the source that indicates the packet was received.
• The destination sends an acknowledgement to the source that requests the next packet to be sent.
4. Which IP packet field will prevent endless loops?
• header checksum
5. Which portion of the network layer address does a router use to forward packets?
• host portion
• broadcast address
• network portion
• gateway address
6. Refer to the exhibit. Using the network in the exhibit, what would be the default gateway address for host A in the 22.214.171.124 network?
7. If the default gateway is configured incorrectly on the host, what is the impact on communications?
• The host is unable to communicate on the local network.
• The host can communicate with other hosts on the local network, but is unable to communicate with hosts on remote networks.
• The host can communicate with other hosts on remote networks, but is unable to communicate with hosts on the local network.
• There is no impact on communications.
8. What is the purpose of a default gateway?
• physically connects a computer to a network
• provides a permanent address to a computer
• identifies the network to which a computer is connected
• identifies the logical address of a networked computer and uniquely identifies it to the rest of the network
• identifies the device that allows local network computers to communicate with devices on other networks
9. What type of routing uses information that is manually entered into the routing table?
10. When the destination network is not listed in the routing table of a Cisco router, what are two possible actions that the router might take? (Choose two.)
• The router sends an ARP request to determine the required next hop address.
• The router discards the packet.
• The router forwards the packet toward the next hop indicated in the ARP table.
• The router forwards the packet to the interface indicated by the source address.
• The router forwards the packet out the interface indicated by the default route entry.
11. What are the key factors to consider when grouping hosts into a common network? (Choose three.)
• physical addressing
• software version
• geographic location
12. What is a component of a routing table entry?
• the MAC address of the interface of the router
• the destination Layer 4 port number
• the destination host address
• the next-hop address
13. Which intermediary devices could be used to implement security between networks? (Choose two.)
• access point
14. What are three common problems with a large network? (Choose three.)
• too few broadcasts
• performance degradation
• security issues
• limited management responsibility
• host identification
• protocol compatibility
15. Refer to the exhibit. All devices shown in the exhibit have factory default settings. How many broadcast domains are represented in the topology that is shown?
16. Which three statements are true about routes and their use? (Choose three.)
If no route to the destination network is found, the packet is returned to the previous router.
If the destination network is directly connected, the router forwards the packet to the destination host.
• If multiple network entries exist for the destination network, the most general route is used to forward the packet.
• If no route exists for the destination network and a default route is present, the packet is forwarded to the next-hop router.
• If the originating host has a default gateway configured, the packet for a remote network can be forwarded using that route.
• If a host does not have a route manually configured for the destination network, the host will drop the packet.
17. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator is troubleshooting a connectivity problem and needs to determine the address that is used to forward network packets out the network. Using the netstat -r command, the administrator would identify which address as the address to which all hosts send packets that are destined for an outside network?
18. Refer to the exhibit. A network administrator notices that there are too many broadcasts on the network. What two steps can the network administrator take to resolve this problem? (Choose two.)
• Replace S2 with a router.
• Place all servers on S1.
• Disable TCP/IP broadcasts.
• Subnet the 192.168.0.0 /24 network.
• Disable all unused interfaces on the switches.
19. Refer to the exhibit. The network in the exhibit is fully operational. What two statements correctly describe the routing for the topology that is shown? (Choose two.)
• 192.168.0.2 is the next-hop address that is used by R3 to route a packet from the 10.0.0.0 network to the 172.16.0.0 network.
• 10.0.0.1 is the next-hop address that is used by R1 to route a packet from the 192.168.12.0 network to the 10.0.0.0 network.
• 192.168.0.1 is the next-hop address that is used by R1 to route a packet from the 192.168.12.0 network to the 172.16.0.0 network.
• 172.16.0.1 is the next-hop address that is used by R3 to route a packet from the 10.0.0.0 to the 172.16.0.0 network.
• 192.168.0.1 is the next-hop address that is used by R2 to route a packet from the 172.16.0.0 network to the 192.168.12.0 network.
• 192.168.0.2 is the next-hop address that is used by R2 to route a packet from the 172.16.0.0 network to the 192.168.12.0 network.
20. What two characteristics are commonly associated with dynamic routing protocols? (Choose two.)
• require no device configuration
• provide routers with up-to-date routing tables
• require less processing power than static routes require
• consume bandwidth to exchange route information
• prevent manual configuration and maintenance of the routing table
21. What statement describes the purpose of a default route?
• A host uses a default route to transfer data to another host on the same network segment.
• A host uses a default route to forward data to the local switch as the next hop to all destinations.
• A host uses a default route to identify the Layer 2 address of an end device on the local network.
• A host uses a default route to transfer data to a host outside the local network when no other route to the destination exists.
Wednesday, October 8, 2008
1. What application layer protocol is commonly used to support for file transfers between a client and a server?
2. What are two forms of application layer software? (Choose two.)
3. A network administrator is designing a network for a new branch office of twenty-five users. What are the advantages of using a client-server model? (Choose two.)
• centralized administration
• does not require specialized software
• security is easier to enforce
• lower cost implementation
• provides a single point of failure
4. What is the purpose of resource records in DNS?
• temporarily holds resolved entries
• used by the server to resolve names
• sent by the client to during a query
• passes authentication information between the server and client
5. What is the automated service that matches resource names with the required IP address?
6. What three protocols operate at the Application layer of the OSI model? (Choose three.)
7. What are three properties of peer-to-peer applications? (Choose three.)
• acts as both a client and server within the same communication.
• requires centralized account administration.
• hybrid mode includes a centralized directory of files.
• can be used in client-server networks.
• requires a direct physical connection between devices.
• centralized authentication is required.
8. Which application layer protocols correctly match a corresponding function? (Choose two.)
• DNS dynamically allocates IP addresses to hosts
• HTTP transfers data from a web server to a client
• POP delivers email from the client to the server email server
• SMTP supports file sharing
• Telnet provides a virtual connection for remote access
9. Which email components are used to forward mail between servers? (Choose two.)
10. As compared to SSH, what is the primary disadvantage of telnet?
• not widely available
• does not support encryption
• consumes more network bandwidth
• does not support authentication
11. Which statements are correct concerning the role of the MTA in handling email? (Choose three.)
• routes email to the MDA on other servers
• receives email from the client's MUA
• receives email via the POP3 protocol
• passes email to the MDA for final delivery
• uses SMTP to route email between servers
• delivers email to clients via the POP3 protocol
12. Which two protocols are used to control the transfer of web resources from a web server to a client browser? (Choose two.)
13. A small home network has been installed to interconnect three computers together for gaming and file sharing. What two properties represent this network type? (Choose two.)
• User accounts are centralized.
• Security is difficult to enforce.
• Specialized operating system software is required.
• File permissions are controlled by a single computer.
• A computer that responds to a file sharing request is functioning as a server.
14. Which layer of the OSI model supplies services that allow user to interface with the network?
15. Refer to the exhibit. What is the destination port for the communication that is represented on line 5?
16. What are two characteristics of peer-to-peer networks? (Choose two.)
• one way data flow
• decentralized resources
• centralized user accounts
• resource sharing without a dedicated server
17. What application layer protocol describes the services that are used for file sharing in Microsoft networks?
18. What are two characteristics of clients in data networks? (Choose two.)
• use daemons
• initiate data exchanges
• are repositories of data
• may upload data to servers
• listen for requests from servers
19. What is the role of the OSI application layer?
• provides segmentation of data
• provides encryption and conversion of data
• provides the interface between the applications on either end of the network
• provides control of all the data flowing between the source and destination devices
20. How does the application layer on a server usually process multiple client request for services?
• ceases all connections to the service
• denies multiple connections to a single daemon
• suspends the current connection to allow the new connection
• uses support from lower layer functions to distinguish between connections to the service
Tuesday, October 7, 2008
after the chapter 2 test, almost every CN spartans get full marks. Well , it is a good news!
here is some website that are identical with what we had test before, check it out. the question is almost 100% identical!
the 100% answer correctness
other same site
Saturday, October 4, 2008
Read all the question. The answer of the question correctness will be between 80%-100%
all the best to CN spartans.
Sunday, July 27, 2008
- Browse to the following key HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\ CurrentVersion\Policies\Explorer
- Modify the value of NoDriveTypeAutoRun to df (hexadecimal)
1.START ->RUN ->Key in 'regedit' to open registry.
2. HKEY_CURRENT_USER\ Software\Microsoft\ Windows\CurrentVersion \Explorer\MountPoints2,
3.Right click 'mountpoints2' and select 'permission'
4.Then click 'Advance',uncheck 'inherit from parent the permission entires that apply to child objects.Include these with entires explicity defined here'.
5.Click 'remove'.'Yes' and 'ok'.
Sunday, July 13, 2008
Cybercriminals can go after your users in any number of ways, and the results can be devastating. Share this list with them to help them stay on their toes in this increasingly risky online world.
New technologies make it easier for all of us to get our work done online, communicate with others, and take advantage of all the Internet-based entertainment that’s available today. But many of those same technologies have also made it easier for cybercriminals — the bad guys who use the ‘Net for illegal purposes — to do their dirty deeds. We’re talking about hackers, attackers, spammers, scammers, phishers, and other criminal types.
In this article, we’ll take a look at the top 10 online technologies that they love to exploit and see how you can protect yourself, both at home and at your business, when using those technologies.
Note: This information is also available as a PDF download.
#1: Broadband connectivity
Broadband has come to most of the United States, with almost 73 million subscribers as of the end of 2007. That’s more than 50% of U.S. households and more than 70% of all home Internet subscribers. Experts predict that by 2012, more than 70% of households will have broadband access.
Broadband has many advantages for users, including high speed at relatively low cost and the “always-on” nature that eliminates the need to log onto the ISP each time you want to access Internet resources. But those same characteristics also make it the perfect technology for exploitation by hackers and attackers. Having your computer connected to the ‘Net 24/7 means the cybercriminals have a much wider window of opportunity to gain access and steal your data, crash your computer, or otherwise do you harm. And the high speed of new access technologies (for example, Verizon now offers 50Mbps plans and predicts speeds up to 100Mbps or more in the near future) means a “drive-by download” can put even a large malicious file on your machine in just seconds.
#2: Wi-fi networking
Another technology that has become incredibly popular is wi-fi, or 802.11 wireless networking. With increasing frequency, both home and business networks are connected by wireless technologies instead of Ethernet cables, and wi-fi hotspots proliferate in public places such as coffee shops, airports, hotels, and city parks. Wi-fi offers maximum convenience because you can move around and stay connected, but it also makes it more convenient for a criminal to get onto your network and into your system without your even knowing, since anyone with a wireless-enabled laptop within range can intercept the signals.
Unlike their older counterparts, new wireless access devices use encryption by default — but you need to check and ensure that yours uses the more secure encryption, such as WPA/WPA2/802.11i rather than WEP, which is easy to crack. You should also use strong encryption for the applications you run over a wireless network (for example, SSH and TLS/HTTPS). You can use a VPN (virtual private network) or IPsec to encrypt traffic traveling over a wireless LAN, and you should create a separate network segment for your wireless communications if you also have a wired LAN. For more information about wi-fi security, see http://www.wardrive.net/.
#3: Removable media
Floppy drives have been almost entirely replaced by CD/DVD readers/writers, flash card readers, and USB drives, but whatever the form, cybercriminals love removable media. If they can get physical access to a computer, they can quickly and easily copy files and remove them, often with no one the wiser. Removable media also pose a security risk because it’s easy to lose discs, thumb drives, flash cards, and the like.
You can use Group Policy in Vista or edit the registry in XP to disable use of USB devices. You can also get third-party software that will block the use of any I/O devices through USB and IEEE1394 ports or using BlueTooth wireless connections. For an example, see http://www.lumension.com/usb_security.jsp
If you’re concerned about removable drives or cards being lost or stolen and the data on them accessed, you can encrypt the data on flash cards, CDs, and DVDs so that you can still work with them on different computers but a thief can’t. For example, see http://www.dekart.com/howto/howto_disk_encryption/encrypt_flash_drive_cd_dvd/.
#4: The Web
#5: E-mail and instant messaging
E-mail is becoming ubiquitous. Almost everybody has one or more e-mail addresses, and it’s one of the most convenient ways to communicate. It has almost the same immediacy as a phone call or instant message without the pressure to answer in real time unless you want to.
Unfortunately, e-mail also has some characteristics that make it attractive to criminals. They can send mail with spoofed return addresses so that it’s difficult or impossible to discover the true origin of the messages. Thus, they can get away with sending spam, phishing messages, threats, child pornography, and other types of illegal correspondence.
Instant messaging programs can also present a threat. As with e-mail, IMers can pretend to be someone else, and most IM programs now support file transfer, which provides a way for criminals to download malicious software to your machine.
Technologies to authenticate the identity of e-mail senders, such as Microsoft’s Sender ID and the more generic SPF, can solve the spoofing problem — but only if all e-mail domain owners use them. Meanwhile, you can protect yourself with spam filtering software that allows you to create a whitelist or safe senders list and by following best practices such as not clicking on hyperlinks in e-mail, viewing your mail in text format only (no HTML mail), and not engaging in IM conversations or file exchange with people you don’t know.
#6: Unified communications
Unified communications (UC) is a popular trend in the enterprise space, and companies are finding many advantages in combining their e-mail, telephony, IM, and conferencing applications so that these programs can interact with each other. With voice over IP (VoIP) slowly replacing traditional telephone services, all these communications technologies can be run over the same network.
However, this also means that now your phone calls are subject to some of the same threats to which your data has always been vulnerable: VoIP packets can be intercepted or even modified in transit just as other data traffic can. For more about UC security threats, see http://blogs.techrepublic.com.com/security/?p=406.
To protect yourself in a unified world, use encryption to keep important data confidential — whether it’s text, voice, or other. Also make sure UC software is updated regularly (along with the underlying operating system) and use authentication to verify the origin of messages and to ensure that messages haven’t been tampered with.
#7: Peer-to-Peer (P2P) programs
The most popular means of exchanging large files quickly across the Internet is through the use of P2P software and networks, such as BitTorrent, KaZaA, Gnutella, and Napster. People use them to share music and movies in violation of copyright laws, but also for legitimate purposes, such as distributing their own home movies and pictures. The number of songs swapped via P2P networks is estimated to be in the billions per year.
Criminals love P2P networks because they can mislabel the files they share and cause you to download malware (such as a program that will allow the criminal to take over your computer) when you think you’re downloading a song. Since most of these networks also strive to protect the anonymity of users, the bad guys have little risk of getting caught.
The best way to protect yourself from the dangers of using P2P applications is not to use them at all.
#8: E-commerce and online banking
More and more of us are conducting more and more of our business over the Internet. It’s convenient to buy what we need from home and have it delivered to our doorsteps and to pay our bills and transfer money between our accounts without a trip to the bank. Criminals love this trend, because it gives them additional opportunities to get hold of your money. They can intercept information as it travels across the network, break into the databases of online businesses or financial institutions to steal information, or set up their own fake e-commerce sites and lure you into giving them your credit card number and other information under the pretense of selling you something.
To protect yourself when buying or banking online, do business only with well-known sites and ensure that your Web traffic is encrypted (your browser will indicate when a site is secure). Navigate to those sites directly. (Don’t click a link in e-mail to get there.) Don’t save your credit card information on the Web sites, either — type it in each time. Keep a close watch on your credit card statements and bank statements and immediately report any suspicious or unauthorized activity.
#9: Mobile computing
Computing has become increasingly mobile and devices ranging from small PDA phones to full-size laptops are being used to store important data and connect to home and company networks. Because of their mobility, however, these devices can easily be lost or stolen — and the data goes with them. If the device contains your personal information, you could be subject to identity theft. If it contains client information for your company, you could put those clients at risk and possibly put your company in violation of regulatory compliance requirements. Luckily, there are a number of ways to protect yourself from these threats.
Many portable computers today come with built in TPMs (Trusted Platform Modules), which are hardware-based cryptography chips that work with software technologies such as Microsoft’s BitLocker (included in some editions of Vista and Server 2008) to encrypt the drive and prevent a thief from being able to log on or access any of the files. More and more laptops also include fingerprint recognition software and other extra security measures. You can also install tracking software that will cause the laptop to “phone home” when connected to the Internet if you fail to enter the correct password.
Many PDA phones provide for password protection and you can buy third-party programs to encrypt data on the phone. The latest versions of Windows Mobile allow you to encrypt the information on the storage card without a third-party program, and you can also remotely wipe the device and card.
#10: Universal connectivity
Closely related to mobility is universal connectivity. We are putting not just our computers but our entire lives online. There are now kitchen appliances and laundry machines that can connect to the Internet, pool and spa equipment that can be accessed online, and so forth. Many of us have security surveillance cameras with built-in Web servers, which we can monitor from anywhere in the world as long as we have an Internet connection. All of this connectivity is great, but it opens up avenues by which criminals can invade our homes without ever setting foot inside.
We also put ourselves online in another way. We have personal Web sites, MySpace or FaceBook accounts, Second Lives, and other venues where we reveal much more about ourselves than we might realize. Criminals love these social networking tools because it makes it easy for them to pick victims and get to know them, sight unseen.
What’s the solution, then? Should we disconnect from the global network, erase our presences from the Web, and go hide in our rooms? Even if that were possible (and it’s not), the cure would be worse than the disease. In today’s world, functioning without the technology is becoming increasingly difficult, and once you’ve taken the technological plunge, the information is “out there” — there’s no going back.
The key is increased awareness and constant vigilance. Use common sense, as you do in the real world. Don’t automatically trust strangers. Don’t wander into places (virtual or physical) where you’re unfamiliar with the terrain. Don’t divulge sensitive information, such as credit card and bank accounts numbers, social security numbers, and birthdates, that can be used to steal your identity.
Most cybercriminals are like most other predators: They go for the easy marks. By taking some precautions, you can still use the technologies that they exploit — so long as you use them wisely — without becoming a victim.
Monday, July 7, 2008
A trojan horse is a program that infects your computer and allows a hacker to run hidden tasks behind your back. A Trojan infection can allow total remote access to your computer by a third party.
If you have experienced any of the following symptoms, you are infected with an Internet Trojan and hackers have invaded your computer. To remove the trojan and keep others out of your computer you can purchase the LockDown software here.
If you experience any of the following symptoms, you have been infected by one of the most dangerous type of individuals. These non-stealth hackers are known to destroy data and crash computers when they grow tired of playing their games.
Your CD-ROM drawer opens and closes by itself
Many Trojans have the ability to open and close your CD-ROM drawer. Two of the most popular Trojans that allow this command are the Netbus and SubSeven Trojans.
Your computer screen flips upside down or inverts
When you are infected with a Trojan, hackers can make your computer screen blink, flip upside down or invert it so that everything is displayed backwards.
Your wall paper or background settings change by themselves
The non-stealth type of hacker may change your default background or wall paper settings. Many times this will be done by using a picture found on your computer or one uploaded by the hacker.
Documents or messages print on your printer by themselves
Since the hacker has total access to your computer, he can access your printer and print personal messages to you or print documents found in your folders.
Your computer browser goes to a strange or unknown web page by itself
Trojans allow the hacker to launch your web browser and go to any web page that they preselected.
Your windows color settings change by themselves
When infected, the trojan allows the hacker to change your Windows color settings to any colors of their choice.
Your screen saver settings change by themselves
Often, the non-stealth hacker will set your screen saver with a personal scrolling message to you.
Your right and left mouse buttons reverse their functions
Often, the hacker makes your mouse buttons switch around. The right click now does what the left click did and the left click takes on the functions that the right click used to have.
Your mouse pointer disappears
Sometimes the hacker will completely turn off your mouse. When this is done, your mouse pointing arrow completely disappears.
Your mouse moves by itself
The hacker can take control of your mouse pointer and click on icons and start programs as if he were sitting in your chair in front of your computer.
Your mouse starts leaving trails
The hacker can change your mouse configuration to make it leave mouse trails as you move it.
Your computer plays recordings of things recorded in your computer room
If you have a microphone connected to your computer, the hacker can record and listen to what is going on in the room. Sometimes the non-stealth hacker will play the sound file back when he knows you are in the room.
Your sound volume changes by itself
Sometimes the hacker will turn your sound volume all the way up or down to attract your attention.
Your Windows Start button disappears
Once infected, the hacker can make your Windows start button hidden from your view.
Programs load or unload by themselves
Hackers can kill or startup programs on your computer. Many times your anti virus is unloaded and then parts of it are altered or deleted.
Your computer starts talking or conversing with you
Some Trojans allow the hacker to type anything that he wants to say to you in a box and then make it appear that your computer is talking to you. Many times this feature is used along with the web cam and sound option so that the hacker can see and hear you as he converses.
Your computer starts reading the contents of your computer clipboard
The hacker can make your computer speak the text contained in your clipboard and insert new text into your windows clipboard.
Strange chat boxes appear on your computer and you are forced to chat with some stranger
The trojan will allow the hacker to bring up a square black chat box at which time you can not do anything else but type into this box. The hacker may talk back to you, or just leave this box up to block you from accessing your computer programs while he undermines what you are doing.
Strange Windows Warning, Info, error, or question boxes appear on your computer
Your computer generates strange warning or question boxes. Many times these are personal messages directed directly to you and asking you a question with Yes or No or Ok buttons for you to click.
You get complaints from your ISP that your computer is IP scanning
The hacker can use your computer to attack, send email or scan for other infected computers. You could then even get an email from your Internet service provider warning you that your account will be terminated if the activity continues.
People that you are chatting with know too much personal information about you or your computer
Hackers can find personal information about you by reading documents on your computer such as a resume, financial records, personal letters, etc. The hacker while talking to you might inform you that he knows your address, phone number, children's names, or other information to try to either gain your respect or scare you in some way. This non-stealth type of hacker is more likely to cause you some kind of damage when he is finished having his fun with you. Be sure to get your copy of LockDown and change all of your passwords, to deny him future access to your computer.
Other people can read your private IRC or ICQ messages
While your computer is infected with a Trojan, the hacker can not only see everything that you type, but every message sent to you via programs such as ICQ, IRC, AIM and yahoo pager. If someone that you are talking to seems to know what others are talking to you about in private while using one of the chat programs above you may have been infected.
People that you are talking to can see you or know what is inside your computer room
If you have a webcam, the hacker can turn it on without your knowledge and watch you as well as see things in the background of the webcam.
Your time and date change on your computer by itself
The hacker can change the time and date on your computer. Often this is done it is to catch your attention and changed to the extreme. You can then expect the hacker to ask you what time or date it is on your computer.
Your computer speaker starts and stops working by itself
The hacker can turn your PC speaker on and off.
Your computer shuts down by itself
The hacker can cause your computer to shutdown if you are infected by an Internet Trojan.
Your computer shuts down and powers off by itself
Once infected, the hacker can make your computer turn itself off.
Your Task bar disappears
The hacker can hide your taskbar from your view.
Experienced hackers a a general rule try to stay hidden and not give a clue that they have accessed your computer. Experienced hackers try to achieve pure stealth in order to continue access and keep the flow of information open. If you have noticed some of the following symptoms, you may have been infected with an Internet Trojan by a more experienced hacker.
Your account passwords are changed or others can access your accounts
Sometimes your accounts might tell you that it was accessed last on a date other than a time that you know you had accessed it, or even be denying you access indicating that someone is currently using the account without your permission. Other services like ICQ, AIM or others are also taken over completely not allowing you to use them any more.
You have strange purchases that you never made on your credit card statement.
The hacker can have your computer save your credit card number to a file when it is used or typed on your computer keyboard. When the hacker uses your credit card, it will often reflect online computer related charges for services or programs that you have never purchased.
Your computer monitor turns itself off and on
The hacker can turn your monitor off and on if there is any program that he wants to run and make sure you won't be watching.
Your modem dials and connects to the Internet by itself
The hacker can have your computer dialup and connect to the Internet at times when he knows that you are not at home or sleeping and then connect to it.
Your modem or hard disk lights flash you are not using your computer
At times when you are not using your computer, the hacker can be running programs or accessing the Internet which will cause these symptoms.
Your computer reboots by itself
Sometimes the hacker will copy programs or files into your computer that will require a reboot to complete the process. The hacker may also reboot your computer when needed.
Your files are in use when you are not accessing them.
When you have files in use, the icon for the file turns transparent which is an indication that you can't run the file. If a hacker is viewing the file, it will change in this way. Another indication is a temp file, for a particular document in the folder that you are viewing. After the hacker exits accesses to the file, the temp file will disappear which sometimes will also cause your Windows explorer to flinch while it refreshes the folders.
Your keyboard or mouse freezes
The hacker can freeze your keyboard or mouse if he thinks that you are going to do something that will catch on to him. This could be to run some antihacker software or to simply go into a folder that he is accessing.
Ctrl + Alt + Del stops working
The hacker or Trojan may disable this function so that you can not view your task list or be able to end the task on a given program or process.
When you reboot your computer you get a message telling you that there are other users still connected
If you get a message when you reboot telling you that other users are still connected, it means that you have open file shares and someone is accessing your files. You need to put a password on your drives and shares or stop sharing files. You can purchase LockDown to monitor and block this activity.